MALAPPURAM REVENUE DISTRICT
Malappuram District has a long history starting from the pre-historic times. The district was ruled by the Tamils, Mysoreans and the British. After 1947, Malappuram became part of the Indian republic. Malappuram district with headquarters at the city of Malappuram came into existence on June 16, 1969. Malappuram district is composed of portion of the erstwhile Palakkad and Kozhikode districts. Malappuram district was carved out by combining some portions of the former Palakkad and Kozhikode districts- Eranad taluk and portions of Tirur taluk in the former Kozhikode district, and portions of Perinthalmanna taluk and Ponnani taluk in the former Palakkad district (before 1969).
Ancient and Medieval era
The district has a rich cultural and political heritage. The port of Ponnani (known as Tyndis in the ancient period) was a centre of trade with Ancient Rome. During Sangam period, the region was included in the Kudanadu, a province in the Ancient Tamilakam. After the Chera Dynasty, a number of dynasties controlled the area, and by the ninth century the region was ruled by the Kulasekharas of Mahodayapuram. After the disintegration of the Kulasekhara kingdom a number of Nair city-states emerged, including Valluvanad, Vettattunadu (Tanur), Parappanad and Nediyiruppu (ruled by the Zamorins). During the 13th century, the Samoothiri of Calicut expanded their territories to Malabar. Thirunavaya, the seat of Mamankam, is located at the present-day Tirur Taluk in Malappuram district. A number of medieval Malayalam poets hailed from Malappuram, including Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri who composed the Narayaneeyam in Sanskrit, Poonthanam Nambudiri and Thunchaththu Ramanujan Ezhuthachan. Among them, Thunchaththu Ramanujan Ezhuthachan is known as the father of modern Malayalam language. Today the district includes Tirunavaya, the classic medieval centre of Vedic learning and Kottakkal, home of Ayurveda medicine.
In the field of astronomy and mathematics also, Malappuram has dedicated its talented persons during the medieval period. The ancient Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics though mainly centered in Thrissur also had Namboodiri and Nair scholars coming from Malappuram. The Parameshvara, the Nilakantha Somayaji, the Jyeṣṭhadeva, the Achyutha Pisharadi, and the Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri, who were the main members of the Kerala School of Astronomy and Mathematics hailed from Tirur area in the district.
European colonial powers first landed in Malabar during the 15th century, and the Samoothiris often allied with foreign powers. During the 18th century, the de facto Mysore kingdom rulers Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan marched into the Samoothiris&rsquo districts. This district was the venue for many of the Mappila revolts (uprisings against the British East India Company in Kerala) between 1792 and 1921. Malappuram has been part of movements such as Khilafat Movement and Malabar Rebellion in the early 20th century. Before Indian independence in 1947, Malappuram was part of Malabar District in the Madras Presidency of British India. The present district was administered as parts of Kozhikode taluk, Eranad taluk, Valluvanad Taluk and Ponnani taluk.
Malabar District remained part of Madras state for some time after independence, but on 1 November 1956 it merged with Travancore-Cochin to form the state of Kerala. Large-scale changes in the territorial jurisdiction of the region took place in 1957 and 1969. On 1 January 1957, Tirur taluk was formed from portions of Eranad taluk and Ponnani taluk. Another portion of Ponnani taluk was transferred to the new Chavakkad taluk in Thrissur district, and the remainder is present-day Ponnani taluk. Perinthalmanna taluk was formed from the former Valluvanad Taluk. Of these, Eranad Taluk and Tirur remained in Kozhikode District and Perinthalmanna Taluk and Ponnani taluk remained in Palakkad District. The new district of Malappuram was formed with four taluks (Eranad, Perinthalmanna, Tirur, and Ponnani), four towns, fourteen developmental blocks and 100 panchayats. Later, three more taluks, Tirurangadi, Nilambur and Kondotty were formed from Tirur Taluk and Eranad taluk.
In the early years of Communist rule in Kerala, Malappuram experienced land reform under the Land Reform Ordinance. During the 1970s Persian Gulf oil reserves were opened to commercial extraction and thousands of unskilled workers migrated to the Gulf. They sent money home, supporting the rural economy, and by the late 20th century the region had First World health standards and near-universal literacy.
Malappuram district Bounded by the Nilgiri hills on the east, the Arabian Sea on the west, the Wayanad and Kozhikode districts on the north, and the Palakkad and Thrissur districts on the south, Malappuram district possesses a total geographical area of 3,550 sq.km, which ranks third in the state in terms of area. the Malappuram district also have a coastal area (lowland) bounded by the Arabian Sea at the west, a midland at the centre, and a hilly area (highland),bounded by the Western Ghats at the east. Eranad and Perinthalmanna Talukas are located in the midland. The vast Nilambur Taluk covers the whole hilly area (highland) where the population is less, but the land area (including a lot of forest area) is more.
Ponnani, Tirur, Tirurangadi, and Kondotty talukas are situated in the most populous coastal region. Malappuram ranks fourth in the length of coastlines among the districts of Kerala having a coastline of 70 km (11.87% of the total coastline of Kerala). zPonnani, Tanur, and Parappanangadi, which lies in the southwest part of the district, are the major coastal cities of the district.
Malappuram's temperature is almost steady throughout the year. It has a tropical climate. Malappuram has significant rainfall most months, with a short dry season. According to Köppen and Geiger, this climate is classified as Am. The average annual temperature in Malappuram is 27.3 °C. In a year, the average rainfall is 2,952 millimetres (116.2 in). Summer usually runs from March until May the monsoon begins by June and ends by September. Malappuram receives both southwest and northeast monsoons. Winter is from December to February.
Four important rivers of Kerala flow through the district: The Chaliyar, the Kadalundi River, the Bharathappuzha and the Tirur River. Chaliyar traverses through Nilambur, Mampad, Edavanna, Areekode, Vazhakkad and flows into the sea at Beypore in Kozhikode district. Kadalundi River passes through places like Melattur, Pandikkad, Malappuram, Panakkad, Parappur, Kooriyad, and Tirurangadi. Bharathappuzha flows through Thootha, Elamkulam, Pulamanthole and joins the main river at Pallippuram. After a course in Palakkad and Thrissur districts, the Bharathappuzha again enters Malappuram district at Thiruvegappura and from Kuttippuram onwards, the river belongs entirely to Malappuram. Tirur River is 48 km long, originates from Athavanad hills in Tirur Taluk, flows in a south-west course up to Tirunavaya, deviates to encircle Tirur town and flows south-west parallel to the sea until it joins the Bharathappuzha near Ponnani port.
Malappuram is the most populous district in Kerala. It is also the 48th most populous of India's 640 districts, with a population density of 1,158 inhabitants per square kilometre (3,000/sq mi). Its population-growth rate from 2001 to 2011 was 13.39 percent. Malappuram has a sex ratio of 1096 women to 1000 men, and its literacy rate is 93.55 percent.
Malappuram is one of two Muslim-majority districts in South India. The Mappilas are the most prominent group among the people of Malappuram.The Hindu temples and Mappila mosques of the region are known for their colorful festivals. Religions practised in the district include Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, Sikhism, Jainism and tribal religions.
Malayalam is the district's principal language. Minority Dravidian languages are Allar (350 speakers) and Aranadan, kept alive by the low education level of its 200 speakers. Tamil is also been spoke by partial number of people.
Malappuram Revenue district is divided into 2 revenue divisions, Tirur and Perinthalmanna. In these two divisions there are 138 villages included in 7 talukas. For the sake of rural administaration, 94 Gram Panchayats are comprised in 15 Block Panchayats, which together form the Malappuram District Panchayat. Besides this in order to perform urban administration better, 12 municipal towns are there. For the representation of Malappuram in Kerala Niyamasabha, there are 16 Niyamasabha constituencies in the district. These 16 are included in 3 Lok Sabha constituencies.
Taluks and Villages
Malappuram district is divided into 138 villages which together form 7 taluks.
Villages in Eranad Taluk (23)
Malappuram, Panakkad, Melmuri, Payyanad, Elankur, Karakunnu, Trikkalangode, Kavanoor, Areekode, Vettilappara, Urangattiri, Kizhuparamba, Pulpatta, Narukara, Perakamanna, Pookkottur, Vettikattiri, Pandikkad, Chembrasseri, Anakkayam, Panthalloor, Edavanna, and Manjeri.
Villages in Nilambur Taluk (21)
Vazhikkadavu, Nilambur, Edakkara, Pullipadam, Karulai, Chungathara, Thiruvali, Karuvarakundu, Amarambalam, Mampad, Kurumbalangode, Akampadam, Tuvvur, Porur, Vellayur, Kalikavu, Kerala Estate, Pothukal, Moothedam, Wandoor, and Chokkad.
Villages in Perinthalmanna Taluk (24)
Nenmini, Angadippuram, Valambur, Vadakkangara, Moorkkanad, Aliparamba, Puzhakkattiri, Kuruva, Thazhekkod, Koottilangadi, Pathaikara, Edappatta, Mankada, Perinthalmanna, Kuruvambalam, Kodur, Elamkulam, Keezhattur, Melattur, Vettathur, Karyavattam, Arakkuparamba, Anamangad, and Pulamanthole.
Villages in Tirur Taluk (30)
Tirur, Thalakkad, Triprangode, Mangalam, Vettom, Purathur, Thirunavaya, Ananthavoor, Thrikkandiyur, Tanalur, Tanur, Ozhur, Ponmundam, Cheriyamundam, Valavannur, Kalpakancheri, Perumanna, Niramaruthur, Pariyapuram, Kottakkal, Ponmala, Athavanad, Kattiparuthi, Edayur, Irimbiliyam, Melmuri, Kurumbathur, Marakkara, Kuttippuram, and Naduvattom.
Villages in Tirurangadi Taluk (17)
Parappur, Abdu Rahiman Nagar, Thenhipalam, Peruvallur, Oorakam, Nannambra, Vengara, Kannamangalam, Othukkungal, Vallikunnu, Moonniyur, Ariyallur, Tirurangadi, Neduva, Parappanangadi, Thennala, and Edarikode.
Villages in Kondotty Taluk (12)
Cheekkode, Cherukavu, Chelembra, Kondotty, Kuzhimanna, Morayur, Muthuvallur, Nediyiruppu, Pulikkal, Vazhakkad, Pallikkal, and Vazhayoor.
Villages in Ponnani Taluk (11)
Ponnani Nagaram, Maranchery, Nannamukku, Alamkode, Vattamkulam, Edappal, Perumpadappa, Thavanur, Ezhuvathiruthy, Veliyankode, anda Kalady.
Malappuram is well connected with all the places in the district as well as the state. KSRTC bus terminal (Govt. buses) is located at Up-Hill on NH 966 (formerly NH 213). Buses are available to different cities of Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. Municipal Bus stand for private buses is at Down Hill on Ahmed Kurikkal Road. NH 66 (formerly NH 17) is just 12 km from city center.
The Malappuram City is served by Angadipuram railway station (17 km away), Parappanangadi Railway Station and Tirur Railway Station both (26 km, 40 minute drive away). Other railway stations are Kuttippuram and Tanur. However Ministry of railways have included the railway line connecting Kozhikode-Malappuram-Angadipuram in its Vision 2020 as socially desirable railway line. Multiple surveys have been done on the line already. Indian Railway computerised reservation counter is available at Friends Janasevana Kendram, Down Hill. Reservation for any train can be done from here.
Malappuram is served by Calicut International Airport located at Karipur in the Malappuram district. The airport started operation in April 1988. It has two terminals, one for domestic flights and second for international flights. There are direct buses to the airport for transportation. Other than buses, Taxis, Auto Rickshaws available for transportation.
Malappuram district plays a significant role in the higher education sector of Kerala. The district is home to two of the main universities in the state- the University of Calicut centered at the Thenjipalam which was established in 1968 as the first university in the Malabar region and the second university in Kerala, and the Thunchath Ezhuthachan Malayalam University centered at Tirur which was established in the year 2012. One of the three off-campus centres of Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) is situated near Perinthalmanna in the district, which was established by AMU in 2010. The Government Medical College, Manjeri, established in 2013, is the apex medical college in the district. The Govt Ayurveda Research Institute for Mental Disease at Pottippara near Kottakkal is the only one Ayurveda mental hospital in Kerala.